1862 The Churches of Christ
Charles Martin's home page
- 1862. THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST.
- The Churches of Christ.
- On The School Front -
COMMON SCHOOLS ACT - 18th June 1862.
- Inspector's Report - 1862 -
Dana St. 10th Sept.
- DEFECTS and
- January 25th - Quite a
Number of Baptisms.
- March 25th - The Saga
of Sis Porter.
- May 20th - Big Bro is
watching you - it doesn't pay to stay away.
- May 22nd -A report in
the "Millennial Harbinger"
- BRO. AND SIS. RANKIN.
- 18th October - Charles
Elected as an Elder.
- SR. DIVERS UNSEEMLY
- MOUNT CL EAR CHAPEL
- On The School Front.
- Railway Line to
- D.I.s Report - 1863. 13th,
- TEACHERS -
CHURCHES OF CHRIST.
Charles and Elizabeth left the Yuille St Baptists and joined
with a Christian group who had been meeting together in a house
fellowship since 1859. The Church of Christ minute book records
"In January 1862 an effort
was made by the Brethren to induce some Close Communion
Baptists who were meeting together in much the same manner
as themselves, to unite with them, when four of their
number, namely Brother and Sister Martin, Brother Spring and
Sister Read agreed to do so for a month or two by which time
they would better understand the views of the Brethren and
would be able to see whether they could consistently unite
with them. In February, Sister Anne Johnson from the Prahran
Church and Brother and Sister Bardwell from the Maidstone
Church united with the Brethren and in
of the same year the number was augmented by
the addition of Brother and Sister Diver from the Prahran
(The blank - as well as
subsequent blanks is in the original)
Image of the Original
By about March an
agreement must have been reached to make the arrangement permanent. Thus commenced his lifetime
association with the Dawson St Church of Christ (known then, as
the "Disciples of Christ"). He was in later years to become an
elder and a pastor, and there is a plaque on the wall in his
memory. The move was to have far-reaching repercussions, not
only for him, but also for his descendants, for a Church of
Christ thread can still be plainly discerned today nearly 150
years later. He had, at this time, been a member of the "Yuille
St Baptist Church" for five years, assuming he joined with them
(or helped form them) as soon as he arrived in Ballarat. Within
a short time he had established himself as one of the two
leading figures in this new church, which grew rapidly in the
next five years.
Churches of Christ.
stage in the history of the Churches of Christ worldwide, the denomination had been in operation for about 40 to 50
years - depending on which date you take as your starting point.
In the early 1800's a minister of the Scottish Presbyterian
Church called Thomas Campbell became increasingly distressed at
the division within the church. He pleaded at the church
assemblies in Ireland and Scotland for efforts to be made to
create a better spirit of love and fellowship among Christian
brethren. Eventually he sailed for America where his son
Alexander later joined him and in 1809 they formed an
association of like minded believers, and a "Declaration and
Address" was published containing the aims and principles of
the movement. It was hoped to heal the divisions within
Christendom and "restore New Testament Christianity". "Division
among Christians", they stated "is a horrid evil". Their catch
cry was to become "No book but the Bible: No creed but Christ".
members were very committed and evangelical, and the movement grew rapidly. By 1830 they were publishing
their own magazines in America and England, and by 1840 a Bible
College had been established in Bethany, USA. Evangelists,
mostly American, came to Australia and planted the work here.
So, in general., the Church of Christ as a denomination was
still young and vigorous by the time Charles joined in the
1860's, and had a distinctive character which marked it off from
the older established churches.
the first meeting of a Church of Christ congregation is believed to be one held in a tent belonging to a John
Ingram at Prahran in August, 1853. Prahran at that time was an
outer suburb of Melbourne, and was a virtual tent city, housing
immigrants of the gold rush era. One of those associated with
this meeting was a H. G. Picton, who had belonged to an early
Church of Christ in London, and had emigrated to Australia at
the same time as Charles. He had immediately endeavoured to
organise a church group along the lines of the church with which
he had been associated in London, but this had taken about ten
months. Eventually,. however, his ambition was realised in the
tent of Mr Ingram. ' By 1860 a number of congregations had been
established in Melbourne, arid others were being planted
throughout country Victoria.
Dawson St, which had only a handful of believers in 1862, was
to build a substantial brick chapel in 1865, capable of holding
some 250 - 300 people. Charles had a hand in this, as the site
was actually purchased by him in his name for £65. He also
advanced a loan for the building, which was not repaid until
about 1890. All the officers' meetings from 1862 until 1865
were held in his home. The church grew in numbers, and in 1868
it was the second largest congregation in Victoria, with a
membership of 128. This was no mean feat, seeing that it had no
paid evangelist (or minister), such as were enjoyed by many of
the Melbourne churches.
committed members of the Churches of Christ were characterised
by a firm conviction that they were
restoring primitive New Testament Christianity, and that they
alone were practising it. They were vehemently opposed to the
practice of christening or sprinkling of infants, and strongly
committed to believers' baptism, which they argued was the only
form of baptism recognised by the New Testament. They were
zealous, dedicated and prepared to argue strongly for their
cause. They were very definite in their preaching and their
beliefs. It is no wonder that they attracted quite a large
following - and also stirred up much opposition. Discipline of
church members was strict on both moral and theological issues -
in other words, you weren't allowed to drink alcohol, smoke,
dance, play cards - or commit adultery or "fornication", or any
of the other little pleasantries of life in which people like to
engage themselves from time to time to brighten up their
otherwise dull or difficult existence. And you had to interpret
and believe the Bible in the same way as they did. If you
committed any of the above mentioned sins, you would most likely
be called upon to "repent", which meant a public 'repentance"
before the assembled church or officers. This was quite an
ordeal, and if you refused, you would eventually have your name
"struck off" the roll (nobody'd worry too much about that
today). If your views were theologically suspect, you may be
required to renounce them. If you absented yourself from church
for two weeks in a row, you would receive a visit from one of
the officers. So all in all, discipline was fairly strict.
However, to somewhat balance this rather sombre picture, in a
society where government benefits for the poor and disadvantaged
were minimal (or non-existent) the church also provided a
welfare net (sometimes financial) for those to whom life had
delivered some sort of a crushing blow.
In general, in answer to the age old question as to which was more
important in the tension of Christianity , belief or behaviour, the reply would
come back - BOTH. You
had to believe the "right" things, and behave in the "right"
This was the
general background of the Churches of Christ, locally and world wide, into which Charles stepped in 1802. He
very quickly established himself as one of the two dominant
figures in the Dawson St congregation.
January - As noted above, Charles and Elizabeth, along
with some others, joined the Church of Christ group for a trial
period. By about March or April the arrangement had become a
9th April - Leonard
(4th child) born. He was to become a pioneer farmer at Apollo
Bay. The eldest son, Charles, was now seven and Charlotte was
August - The church minutes record thus -
In August 1862 Brother Picton of the Prahran Church also united
with the Brethren. In the same month a meeting of the Brethren
was held in the house of to consider the advisability of
organising the Church, there were present on that occasion
Brother and Sister Divers, Brothers Martin, Bardwell, Diver,
Rankin, Neish, Picton and Sisters Martin and Bardwell, when
the following resolutions were carried -
of Picton was significant, as Picton was to become the chief
opponent of Martin in future years. Picton had come to Australia
at the same time as Charles and had
been one of the initiators of the first Church of Christ
meetings in Prahran in 1853.
That the Church be organized.
That Brother Picton be Pastor.
That Brothers Divers, Martin and
Neish be Deacons.
Temperance Hall be taken for a Meeting Place.
September - From the church minutes -
"September 1862 - A church meeting was
held in consequence of its being discovered that Brother Neish
accepted an office in the United Methodist Free Church and was
in the habit of meeting with them every alternate Lord's Day.
When it was agreed, that, Brother Neish be written to,
informing him that the Brethren could not hold fellowship with
him while he walked thus disorderly. Letter accordingly sent.
Looks like you weren't allowed
to have a foot in two camps.
of Church Minutes September to January 1863
19th - Church meeting.
It was moved, seconded and carried,
That the fellowship funds, viz
£11/4/9 be set apart for a building fund. "
So by now (late 1862), the
church group is beginning to show good growth, and the need for a building is being considered.
On The School Front -
COMMON SCHOOLS ACT - 18th June 1862.
schools front in 1862, a new Education Act was passed known as the "Common Schools" Act. This was a very important
step in the cause of education in Victoria, although it appears
not to have had a great deal of impact on Charles.
The new act
had become necessary because of the unsatisfactory state existing in Victorian education. There had been much
animated debate and discussion (to put it mildly) for some years
between the rival groups involved in education, but at last the
government managed to hammer out the details of the act and it was passed by
parliament. The act abolished the dual school system which had
hitherto been in place, and dissolved the separate school boards
of the Denominational schools and the National schools. A single
board (or committee) was then appointed in Melbourne with
control of all schools. It was known as the "Common Schools
Board". The board members were carefully chosen so that each of
the major denominations was represented. The church schools
continued to be run, as before, by the denomination with which
they were affiliated, but they were subject to the new Common
Schools Board, and some minor restrictions were placed on them.
The teachers and inspectors from each system were merged. At the
time the act was passed, the Denominational system had control
of about 500 schools and the National system about 200. The
merger of the two systems meant that there could be considerable
cost cutting, as previously there had been costly duplication
with two or more schools of low attendance operating in close
proximity to each other, and a number of these could now be
amalgamated or closed.
the school front at the grass roots level, teachers salaries were further reduced, this time
to £10 per centum (or doubled from last years reduction).
21st May a letter was received by the
school stating that "unless an average attendance of 100 is
reached by 30th June, the salary of one monitor will be
withdrawn". As the average attendance for the year was about 80,
it looks as though they might have lost the monitor.
19th July letters were posted from Mr Orlebar, the
Chief Inspector, to Charles and Elizabeth. They stated -
"I have the honor to
report that on the 15th Instance I observed the teaching of Mr
Charles Martin in the Ballarat Township School, and have
pleasure in recommending that he should have his
(Likewise for Elizabeth.)
I'm not sure
of the significance of these certificates, but I believe that it
would be necessary to pass a test by the
Inspector to be fully validated as a teacher within the Common
Schools. A few days later another letter arrived, stating, "I
have the honor to inform you that the Certificates of ?????? for
Mr and Mrs Martin have been prepared, and can be obtained on
application from this office."
AND SO AS THE YEAR 1862
CONCLUDED, A GREAT DEAL HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED
ON THE CHURCH FRONT. CHARLES AND ELIZABETH MADE THE CHANGE FROM
THE BAPTIST CHURCH TO THE CHURCH OF CHRIST, AND QUITE
SIGNIFICANT PROGRESS HAS ALREADY BEEN MADE BY THIS GROUP.
FROM 1862 ONWARDS, ALONG WITH PICTON, HE
WAS THE DOMINANT FIGURE IN THE
CHURCH. THE BUSINESS MEETINGS WERE HELD IN HIS HOME - HE WAS THE
CHAIRMAN AND TREASURER. AND IN 1865 A LARGE ROOM OF HIS HOME WAS
USED FOR THE CHURCH MEETINGS WHILE THE NEW BUILDING WAS UNDER
To Hannah and Thomas Farr (in
Ballarat) - a son - Arthur (5th child
To Hannah Anderson (in
Ballarat) - a son - Joseph Downey.
Inspector's Report -
1862 - Dana St. 10th Sept.
Enrolled - Present 81
Highest Number (in attendance?) 117
Age - 4- 14; 5- 10;
6- 11; 15 – 1; 18 - 1.
Premises - A state of
repair.Stone in fair repair; see last report -regarding
Number of Stories and Rooms - 7 rooms in all; 2 schoolrooms. Number and Size of
Rooms -Size 45 x 24; 11 x 13.
Light and Ventilation -
Privies - Two
Play Ground - Two
Is There a Time table - In dark room.
Discipline of School -
What Punishments are used - Corporal ????? and keeping in.
Holidays During Year - Christmas 14
days; Easter 7 days.
General Tone of School -
Time Pupils Attend School - 5 months.
Charles Martin, Class
2 Division 1.
Class 2 Division 2.
Manner - Good
Peculiarities in Pronunciation - Aspiration Defective.
Skill in Teaching - Very
Skill in Class Management - Good.
Skill in School Management - Too many subdivisions; lower classes do not get
sufficient of teachers attention.
Writing - Fair.
the Board - Salary £175; Assistant £120 Monitress £20
Yearly Amount of Fees Paid to
the School Board -
Teacher's Yearly Income by Fees - £167
He Pay Rent for the House?- No
of Payment by Children - CI 1 and 2
1/-; CI 3 1/6; CI 4 and 5 2/-
Are The Incidental Expenses for the School, Such as Wood and Water for the
Children, Defrayed? By the Teacher.
DEFECTS and RECOMMENDATIONS. -
girls in Grade 3 should write from Dictation more frequently.
2. The school could be better worked with fewer classes.
List of teachers, 29th August, 1862.
Charles Martin - Division 1 Class 2.
Mary Hitchcock - Division 2 Class 2. (Possibly Mary returned after
her baby was born. But more likely she, was still on the roll
Elizabeth Martin - Division 2 Class 2. Assistant Ballarat.
During the year, the church
group bean to organise more fully and to make definite moves to
obtain a church building.
Early in the
year, Charles, in conjunction with
Brothers Neale and Divers, purchased a block of land in Peel
Street for £35, which they offered to the group as a site for
their proposed new building.
in the year the church was visited by a "Bro Milneras part of a tour of the churches in the colony. He
reported in the "British Millenial Harbinger" (magazine of the
British Churches of Christ) -
"There are several small churches up
the country, one at Ballarat, one
at Maryborough, one at Beechworth. We had the opportunity of
visiting Ballarat only, if we can be said to have done so by
spending one Friday evening, and delivering a lecture. With a
population around them of forty thousand, reinforced by the
location of so esteemed and experienced a disciple as Bro.
Picton, and seconded by Bro Divers zeal in tract distribution,
my expectation is to hear good tidings of the truth in
On January 25th, the church was
also visited by D.Willder, an enthusiastic and dedicated pastor-cum-evangelist from the nearby
Maryborough church. He reported in the "Millennial Harbinger" -
I next visited by rail, lately
opened, the flourishing township of Ballarat, about 50 miles
from Geelong; I was welcomed by Pastor Picton, who was
formerly over the Prahran Church. The church in this town
has only lately taken a public position. The progress is
encouraging The morning meeting was very comforting,
rendered more so by the presence of Bro. Knights, formerly
of Hammersmith, who was spending the Lord's day at Ballarat.
We held an open air meeting in the main road in the
afternoon, when three addresses were delivered by the
brethren, after which we conversed with an anxious enquirer.
In the evening I spoke in the Temperance-hall on the Bible
as the only rule of faith and practice. Immediately
after the service we held another large and successful open
air meeting. The people were eager to hear of Apostolic
Christianity, and the greatest order prevailed. A large number
of tracts were distributed, and many were unwilling to go. I
was glad to hear that the brethren have purchased a piece of
land whereon to erect a meeting house. I have no doubt, from
the zeal and warm-heartedness manifested by the church in
this, the second township in the colony, that their position
will be one of influence and power.
January 25th - Quite a
Number of Baptisms.
Throughout the year quite a number of baptisms
Bro and Sr Neale also Sr Porter
having made a profession of (heir faith
in the Lord Jesus were immersed into the names of the Father
Son and Holy Spirit in the Baptist Chapel Dawson St which was
kindly lent for the occasion.
March 25th - The Saga
of Sis Porter.
On the 25th
March it was reported at a church meeting that Sis Porter had left her husband and child, and it was "moved Bro
Diners, seconded Bro Martin, that Bro Picton write a letter
calling upon her to repent and return"
Two months later it was reported to the May meeting
that she would not hear the letter read, but had nevertheless
returned to her husband. It was moved that Bro Picton visit her
and "ascertain whether she had
received the letter, and if so her reason for not replying to
At the June
meeting, Bro Picton reported that he had been unable to get any
reply from Sis Elizabeth Porter and was
requested to visit her again.
September, Bro Martin reported that Sisters Divers and Martin
had waited on Mrs Elizabeth Porter in
order, if possible, to induce her to consider her ways, but were
sorry to find that she showed no sign of repentance. The
brothers then "saw no other course for them than to erase her
name from the church book". (Thus ended the six month saga of
Sis Porter. Apparently she wasn't too keen to repent and front
up to the church and all the people.)
May 20th - Big Bro is
watching you - it doesn't pay to stay away.
BR NICOL - Bro Divers reported that Bro Nicol had been
absent for six weeks, and from enquiries made, had ascertained
that he had gone to Back Creek. Bro Bardwell was requested to
write to him and inquire the reason of his sudden absence.
22nd -A report in the "Millennial Harbinger"
church is slowly progressing. We are
to use the Baptist chapel tonight to immerse one into the
everlasting name. We are much in want of an evangelist. A large
field is waiting for the good seed. Do you think you could
obtain one from home? We do not appear to have a suitable
brother here. I think an effort would be made to support him
could a man of talent be secured.
I remain yours in the Gospel,
June - At a church meeting held 17th
June the advisability of securing a block of land in Barkley
street was discussed, but a week later it was decided that the
purchase not be proceeded with. Apparently the block of land in
Peel St wasn't considered quite suitable, even though the church
had agreed to purchase it from Bro Martin and company.
AND SIS. RANKIN.
church group was very strict and legalistic in its enforcement
of "moral standards" it also was anxious to meet the needs of
the poorer members of the group. Bro.
and Sis. Rankin were a case in point. The minutes of the May
meeting record that "Bro Rankin continuing unwell, it was
resolved that after deducting the current weekly expenses, he
should receive the balance, provided that it do not exceed the
average rate of 7/6. "
Bro Divers reported that he had purchased a mangle at a sale for
£2/16/0. It was moved "That the mangle
be purchased and repaired on behalf of the church and lent to Sr
September, Bro. Martin stated that on the previous evening he
had called on Bro. and Sr. Rankin and
found that they were dissatisfied with the mangle, when Br.
Picton mentioned that he believed that they were anxious to
remove to a house "situate on the Yarrawee Creek". On the motion
of Bros Neale and Reid, it
was resolved that Brethren Divers and Martin ascertain from Br
Rankin whether he thought he could obtain a livelihood if the
church purchased the house for him. If they found him to be of
the opinion that he could, they were authorised to purchase the
house for a sum not exceeding ten pounds £10. Later in the month
Br Divers had an interview with Br Rankin and as a result of the
interview Br Reid moved and Br Bardwell seconded "That the church advance ten
pounds (£10) as a loan to Br Rankin, and that the house and
land on the Yarrowee Creek be held as security. "
matter which exercised the minds of the brethren during the year
was that of a paid evangelist to come to Victoria from England
or America. The name of Bro. Earl from England was suggested,
and it was resolved that 5/- weekly be put aside to assist in
the state-wide evangelistic fund.
September. Mary Davey Joins The Church
- Although it is not mentioned anywhere in the minutes, on this
day William and Mary Davey (sister of Charles' wife Elizabeth)
became members of the church. Their names are recorded in a roll
at the back of the book which gives the date of joining. William
was soon to attend officers' meetings, and in later years was to
be chairman for some time. He was to remain faithful to Charles
through all the turmoil that was to follow.
18th October - Charles
Elected as an Elder.
end of the year the need for an additional elder became apparent and Bro. Martin moved that Wednesday evening
14th October be devoted to special prayer on the subject. The
election was held on Sunday 18th, with Bro. Martin receiving 11
votes, followed by Brethren Knight (3), Divers and Bardwell (1
This may not
seem to be of any great significance to us, but I think that it
was probably quite an important event to
him (and his fellow church officers) at the time.
SR. DIVERS UNSEEMLY CONDUCT.
At a Church meeting held
27th October 1863 at the residence of Br Martin the minutes
record that -
Martin and Neish reported that having witnessed a very unseemly display of anger on the part of
Sr. Divers, at the meeting of the church on the Wednesday
previous, they had endeavoured to expostulate with her on
the impropriety of such conduct, but they were sorry to say
that she expressed no contrition for her conduct. Br Martin
moved, Br Cathcart seconded "That a deputation consisting of
Brethren Reid, Bardwell and Neale wait on Sr Divers for the
purpose of reasoning with her
This meeting was not held at the home of Bro. Divers, as had
been the case previously, but at the
home of Bro. Martin, and Bro Divers was not in attendance. It's
a reasonable assumption that the change was effected because of
the trouble concerning Sr Divers. The following meeting was also
at the home of Bro. Martin, although on this occasion Bro.
Divers was present. The minutes tell the story -The deputation appointed at the last meeting
reported the result of their
interview. Bro Bardwell moved, Br Nicoll seconded "That the
apology be considered satisfactory". Carried. (So Sis
Divers must have apologised O.K.)
meeting the name of William Davey appears as one of those present. He had joined the church only about six weeks
previously with his wife, Mary, the sister of Elizabeth. They
had joined from the Baptists. Whether or not this was the same
group of which Charles and Elizabeth had been members is not
stated, and they may well have come from another Baptist group.
of note is the fact that the meeting was held at the residence of Bro. Martin. There were 14 in attendance,
so it was a fairly large group. If Charles was living in the
residence attached to the Dana Street School (which I believe he
was) there would have been problems fitting everyone in, as it
still stands today and the rooms appear to be quite small. But
they must have managed somehow.
MOUNT CL EAR CHAPEL ISSUE -
State - Bro Picton reported that a
deputation from the congregation assembling in the Mount Clear
Union Chapel had waited upon him, expressing their desire to
transfer the building to us, if we would undertake to conduct
religious services therein every Lord's Day. Br Long moved,
Br Reid seconded, "That we take the Mount Clear chapel for
It is also
interesting to read the reference to the deputation from Mount Clear Union Church asking Bro Picton to take the
services there. This created quite a stir and a fierce public
debate erupted in the pages of the Ballarat Newspapers (The
"Ballarat Star" and The "Ballarat Evening Standard"} about the
dispute centering around the Mt Clear Church Hall. (Mt Clear is
about three miles out of Ballarat). As the other denominations
weren't able to consistently fill the pulpit, it was offered
through Bro. Picton to the Church of Christ, and willingly
accepted, but some strongly objected to this, as a letter to the
newspaper makes plain -
" a small knot of demonstrative religionists,
recently sprung into existence, denominated "disciples", and
led on by a law clerk and a Geelong shoemaker, having
secured the building, actually refuse and have refused its
use, to the very people whose money erected it A public
meeting was held in the building some time ago The meek and
lowly "disciples" would not listen to any compromise, and
they would have the building, the whole building and nothing
but the building Now, sir, why should half a dozen noisy
persons, most of them from Ballarat, exclude from the
building alluded to the very persons whose money erected
then took off at a tangent, and became focused on the subject of baptism, which would have suited the
"disciples" quite well and served to give further publicity to
8th November - Lord's Day, 8th November 1863. Peter Joseph
Cassider and Christian Renton having declared their faith in
Jesus were baptized by Bro Picton in the chapel at Mt Clear.
that this "Cassider" is the chap called Cassidy, who receives a
special mention in an article written by
Picton in 1897 entitled "Looking Backwards". He writes of this
Sunday night while passing the Temperance hall his attention
was arrested by the voice of
the preacher, and prompted by curiosity he came up the steps
to the door and there listened to the discourse
his Romish bias, however,
preventing him from coming inside. The next Sunday night he
came, and ventured into the porch and
listened. The following two or three Sundays I saw him
inside the hall on the back seat close to the door. Then' he
came a seat or two nearer. The brethren having noticed his
regular attendance and the interest he evinced in the
services, spoke to him, expressing the pleasure they felt at
his presence. He then informed them that he was a Roman
Catholic, but that the discourses he had listened to, and
his search of the Scriptures, (even the Douay Version), had
led him to see things in an entirely different light to what
he had been taught. After a few conversations with brethren
Martin and Picton, the Romish scale fell from his eves. He
received the truth in the love of it, and joyfully was
buried with Christ in baptism, and became a most devoted,
zealous and consistent disciple."
6th December - Lord's day, 6th December 1863. Ann Wynne having
also professed her faith in the Saviour was baptized by Br
Picton in the chapel at Mount Clear.
Ann Wynne was a teacher from the school, previously
listed as "Baptist", so no doubt it was a source of great
satisfaction to Charles and Elizabeth that she had decided to be
baptised and join the church.
By about the
end of 1863, the situation in the church is described by Picton in his article, "Looking Backwards", written in
"After a few months' labour the brethren's hearts were
rejoiced by several additions, some by letter of
commendation, some from the denominations
some by immersion. Brethren W. M. Long and G. O. Reid, Bro
and Sister W Davey, Bro and Sister Theodore Wright, Bro. and
Sister Barrett, Bro. and Sister Smith from the Baptists (the
last three named were deacons with the Baptists); Bro and
Sister Neil from the Free Methodists; Bro J. B. Cathcart by
letter from Dunedin, and Bro. and Sister Knights by letters
from England. By immersion - Bro. and Sister Porter, Bro.
and Sister Hooker, Sisters Annie Wran (Mrs MacGowan) Bessie
Win (Mrs C. Morris), and Bro Peter Cassidy - the latter a
convert from Romanism."
time, as is obvious from the minutes, informal pastoral care had
commenced at the church. Discipline was
strict. The lives of members were carefully scrutinised, and if
in error (doctrinal or moral) they were reprimanded. They were
also required to "repent", which meant in public before the
assembled members and thus it was something of an ordeal. If
they refused to repent, they were struck off the roll.
Attendance at meetings was carefully monitored. An absence of
two consecutive Sundays meant a visit from someone in authority.
Nevertheless, in this year, the small group of believers again
made some quite significant gains, no
doubt because of their commitment and sense of mission and
purpose. It has ever been true that when a group is convinced
that its beliefs and practices are right, its members will
earnestly propagate those beliefs with conviction, and others
will be convinced and will join them. Many were added to the
church by "faith and repentance and confession and baptism" ("in
the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit"). I did not record
every reference to this, nor shall I in the pages that follow.
But there was certainly much activity and commitment by the
members of the group at this time, and the church was
experiencing significant growth in numbers.
The School Front.
detail is available for this year. School was held for 240 days.
At the end of the year there were 150 on
the roll, with an average attendance of about 80. It's also
perhaps worthy of note, that for boys the average attendance was
60, but for girls only 20. Why there should be such a big
difference I don't know but this situation continued for most of
the next decade, even if it wasn't quite so pronounced. In most
schools of the time, boys outnumbered girls, but not to this
So far as
Charles and Elizabeth are concerned, the District Inspector's report notes that they are "quiet and unostentatious
- not inefficient", and that discipline is "Good".
Line to Melbourne Completed.
Another event of importance in
1863 was the completion of the railway from Melbourne to Ballarat. It's probably difficult
for us to realise the great significance of this, but it must
have made a huge difference in conditions of travel. The train
went via Geelong, and although this added some extra miles to
the trip, (it took about four and a half hours) it was no doubt
much speedier and more comfortable than jolting around in a Cobb
and Co. coach for a full day.
To Mary and William Davey in Ballarat - a daughter - Mary.
To Louisa (Crump) in
Castlemaine - a son - Charles Marcus.
(6th child - 5 surviving).
D.I.s Report - 1863.
13th, 14th July.
Number on the roll - 103. Number under 7 - 28. Number over 7 examined
(NOTE - In the list of children examined, the name Henry
Martin, aged 8, appears. His parent's occupation is listed as
"schoolmaster". This is obviously Charles' eldest son. His
school marks appear to be quite good.)
State of School - Good.
Ventilation - By side windows and end ventilators - open
ceiling - good.
Drainage - Not good - ground lies below footpath.
Light - Good.
Out-offices - Good.
Playground and Fence -
Playground spacious, fence good.
Is there sufficient school
apparatus and furniture - Yes,
but desks are bad being double.
Desks - Sufficient.
Forms - Sufficient.
Maps - Sufficient.
Blackboards - Two.
Books - Sufficient.
Number of Classes - 5.
Number of Teachers and Pupil
Teachers - 2. Master and
Are Monitors Employed? - Yes.
Are the Classes Kept
Properly Employed? - Yes.
Is There a Time Table and is
it Adhered To? - Yes.
Is the School Room Properly
Arranged? - The arrangement of
desks may be improved.
IS THE INSTRUCTION EQUAL TO
THE PROGRAM? IF NOT, WHEREIN DOES IT FALL SHORT AND IN WHAT CLASSES.?
The first class falls short in
writing and arithmetic, and the same may be said of ???? and ??? are not up to standards.
Discipline - Good.
Is Military Drill Taught?
Methods of Instruction - are they from Book, or Oral, or Both
Quiet and unostentatious - not
Is the Register Properly
Kept? - Yes.
Is the Roll Properly Kept?
How Many Free Children? -
Are They Certified? - No
Are the Accounts Properly
Kept - Yes.
Is the Rule Requiring 2
Hours of Consecutive Secular Instruction in Morning and Afternoon Observed? Yes.
Have You Heard Any
Complaints Regarding This? No.
Does The Local Committee
Manifest Interest in the School? How Often Do They Visit It? Seldom visit the school.
Are the Rules of the Local
Committee Observed? There are
(NOTE - Some of the various tests are then quoted)
Average time examining each
child 7 9/10 minutes. Total - 6 hours
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5 May 2014