1862 The Churches of Christ
Charles Martin's home page

        1. The Churches of Christ.
      1. On The School Front - COMMON SCHOOLS ACT - 18th June 1862.
      2. Inspector's Report - 1862 - Dana St. 10th Sept.
        1. BUILDINGS.
        2. TEACHER.
        3. INCOME.
      3. 1863.
        1. January 25th - Quite a Number of Baptisms.
        2. March 25th - The Saga of Sis Porter.
        3. May 20th - Big Bro is watching you - it doesn't pay to stay away.
        4. May 22nd -A report in the "Millennial Harbinger"
        5. BRO. AND SIS. RANKIN.
        6. 18th October - Charles Elected as an Elder.
        9. On The School Front.
        10. Railway Line to Melbourne Completed.
      4. D.I.s Report - 1863. 13th, 14th July.
        1. ORGANISATION.
        2. TEACHERS -


In 1862, Charles and Elizabeth left the Yuille St Baptists and joined with a Christian group who had been meeting together in a house fellowship since 1859. The Church of Christ minute book records -
    "In January 1862 an effort was made by the Brethren to induce some Close Communion Baptists who were meeting together in much the same manner as themselves, to unite with them, when four of their number, namely Brother and Sister Martin, Brother Spring and Sister Read agreed to do so for a month or two by which time they would better understand the views of the Brethren and would be able to see whether they could consistently unite with them. In February, Sister Anne Johnson from the Prahran Church and Brother and Sister Bardwell from the Maidstone Church united with the Brethren and in          of the same year the number was augmented by the addition of Brother and Sister Diver from the Prahran Church".
    (The blank - as well as subsequent blanks is in the original)    Image of the Original
    By about March an agreement must have been reached to make the arrangement permanent. Thus commenced his lifetime association with the Dawson St Church of Christ (known then, as the "Disciples of Christ"). He was in later years to become an elder and a pastor, and there is a plaque on the wall in his memory. The move was to have far-reaching repercussions, not only for him, but also for his descendants, for a Church of Christ thread can still be plainly discerned today nearly 150 years later. He had, at this time, been a member of the "Yuille St Baptist Church" for five years, assuming he joined with them (or helped form them) as soon as he arrived in Ballarat. Within a short time he had established himself as one of the two leading figures in this new church, which grew rapidly in the next five years.

The Churches of Christ.

    At this stage in the history of the Churches of Christ worldwide, the denomination had been in operation for about 40 to 50 years - depending on which date you take as your starting point. In the early 1800's a minister of the Scottish Presbyterian Church called Thomas Campbell became increasingly distressed at the division within the church. He pleaded at the church assemblies in Ireland and Scotland for efforts to be made to create a better spirit of love and fellowship among Christian brethren. Eventually he sailed for America where his son Alexander later joined him and in 1809 they formed an association of like minded believers, and a "Declaration and Address" was published containing the aims and prin­ciples of the movement. It was hoped to heal the divisions within Christ­endom and "restore New Testament Christianity". "Division among Christians", they stated "is a horrid evil". Their catch cry was to become "No book but the Bible: No creed but Christ".
    These early members were very committed and evangelical, and the movement grew rapidly. By 1830 they were publishing their own magazines in America and England, and by 1840 a Bible College had been established in Bethany, USA. Evangelists, mostly American, came to Australia and planted the work here. So, in general., the Church of Christ as a denomination was still young and vigorous by the time Charles joined in the 1860's, and had a distinctive character which marked it off from the older established churches.
    In Victoria, the first meeting of a Church of Christ congregation is believed to be one held in a tent belonging to a John Ingram at Prahran in August, 1853. Prahran at that time was an outer suburb of Melbourne, and was a virtual tent city, housing immigrants of the gold rush era. One of those associated with this meeting was a H. G. Picton, who had belonged to an early Church of Christ in London, and had emigrated to Australia at the same time as Charles. He had immediately endeavoured to organise a church group along the lines of the church with which he had been associated in London, but this had taken about ten months. Eventually,. however, his ambition was realised in the tent of Mr Ingram. ' By 1860 a number of congregations had been established in Melbourne, arid others were being planted throughout country Victoria.
    Dawson St, which had only a handful of believers in 1862, was to build a substantial brick chapel in 1865, capable of holding some 250 - 300 people. Charles had a hand in this, as the site was actually purchased by him in his name for £65. He also advanced a loan for the building, which was not repaid until about 1890. All the officers' meetings from 1862 un­til 1865 were held in his home. The church grew in numbers, and in 1868 it was the second largest congregation in Victoria, with a membership of 128. This was no mean feat, seeing that it had no paid evangelist (or minister), such as were enjoyed by many of the Melbourne churches.
    The committed members of the Churches of Christ were characterised by a firm conviction that they were restoring primitive New Testament Christianity, and that they alone were practising it. They were vehemently opposed to the practice of christening or sprinkling of infants, and strongly committed to believers' baptism, which they argued was the only form of baptism recognised by the New Testament. They were zealous, dedicated and prepared to argue strongly for their cause. They were very definite in their preaching and their beliefs. It is no wonder that they attracted quite a large following - and also stirred up much opposition. Discipline of church members was strict on both moral and theological issues - in other words, you weren't allowed to drink alcohol, smoke, dance, play cards - or commit adultery or "fornication", or any of the other little pleasantries of life in which people like to engage themselves from time to time to brighten up their otherwise dull or difficult existence. And you had to interpret and believe the Bible in the same way as they did. If you committed any of the above mentioned sins, you would most likely be called upon to "repent", which meant a public 'repentance" before the assembled church or officers. This was quite an ordeal, and if you refused, you would eventually have your name "struck off" the roll (nobody'd worry too much about that today). If your views were theologically suspect, you may be required to renounce them. If you absented yourself from church for two weeks in a row, you would receive a visit from one of the officers. So all in all, discipline was fairly strict. However, to somewhat balance this rather sombre picture, in a society where government benefits for the poor and disadvantaged were minimal (or non-existent) the church also provided a welfare net (sometimes financial) for those to whom life had delivered some sort of a crushing blow.
    In general, in answer to the age old question as to which was more important in the tension of Christianity , belief or behaviour, the reply would come back - BOTH. You had to believe the "right" things, and behave in the "right" way.
    This was the general background of the Churches of Christ, locally and world wide, into which Charles stepped in 1802. He very quickly estab­lished himself as one of the two dominant figures in the Dawson St con­gregation.

January - As noted above, Charles and Elizabeth, along with some others, joined the Church of Christ group for a trial period. By about March or April the arrangement had become a permanent one.
9th April - Leonard (4th child) born. He was to become a pioneer farmer at Apollo Bay. The eldest son, Charles, was now seven and Charlotte was five.
August - The church minutes record thus -
In August 1862 Brother Picton of the Prahran Church also united with the Brethren. In the same month a meeting of the Brethren was held in the house of to consider the advisability of organising the Church, there were present on that occasion Brother and Sister Divers, Brothers Martin, Bardwell, Diver, Rankin, Neish, Picton and Sisters Martin and Bardwell, when the following resolutions were carried -
That the Church be organized.
That Brother Picton be Pastor.
That Brothers Divers, Martin and Neish be Deacons.
That the Temperance Hall be taken for a Meeting Place.
    The arrival of Picton was significant, as Picton was to become the chief opponent of Martin in future years. Picton had come to Australia at the same time as Charles and had been one of the initiators of the first Church of Christ meetings in Prahran in 1853.
September - From the church minutes -
"September 1862 - A church meeting was held in consequence of its being discovered that Brother Neish accepted an office in the United Methodist Free Church and was in the habit of meeting with them every alternate Lord's Day. When it was agreed, that, Brother Neish be written to, informing him that the Brethren could not hold fellowship with him while he walked thus disorderly. Letter accordingly sent.
Looks like you weren't allowed to have a foot in two camps.
    Image of Church Minutes September to January 1863   
November 19th - Church meeting.

It was moved, seconded and carried, That the fellowship funds, viz £11/4/9 be set apart for a building fund. "
So by now (late 1862), the church group is beginning to show good growth, and the need for a building is being considered.

On The School Front - COMMON SCHOOLS ACT - 18th June 1862.

    On the schools front in 1862, a new Education Act was passed known as the "Common Schools" Act. This was a very important step in the cause of education in Victoria, although it appears not to have had a great deal of impact on Charles.
    The new act had become necessary because of the unsatisfactory state existing in Victorian education. There had been much animated debate and discussion (to put it mildly) for some years between the rival groups involved in education, but at last the government managed to hammer out the details of the act and it was passed by parliament. The act abolished the dual school system which had hitherto been in place, and dissolved the separate school boards of the Denominational schools and the National schools. A single board (or committee) was then appointed in Melbourne with control of all schools. It was known as the "Common Schools Board". The board members were carefully chosen so that each of the major denominations was represented. The church schools continued to be run, as before, by the denomination with which they were affiliated, but they were subject to the new Common Schools Board, and some minor restrictions were placed on them. The teachers and inspectors from each system were merged. At the time the act was passed, the Denominational system had control of about 500 schools and the National system about 200. The merger of the two systems meant that there could be considerable cost cutting, as previously there had been costly duplication with two or more schools of low attendance operating in close proximity to each other, and a number of these could now be amalgamated or closed.
On the school front at the grass roots level, teachers salaries were further reduced, this time to £10 per centum (or doubled from last years reduct­ion).
On 21st May a letter was received by the school stating that "unless an average attendance of 100 is reached by 30th June, the salary of one monitor will be withdrawn". As the average attendance for the year was about 80, it looks as though they might have lost the monitor.
On 19th July letters were posted from Mr Orlebar, the Chief Inspector, to Charles and Elizabeth. They stated -
"I have the honor to report that on the 15th Instance I observed the teaching of Mr Charles Martin in the Ballarat Township School, and have pleasure in recommending that he should have his certificate."              Image
(Likewise for Elizabeth.)
    I'm not sure of the significance of these certificates, but I believe that it would be necessary to pass a test by the Inspector to be fully validated as a teacher within the Common Schools. A few days later another letter arrived, stating, "I have the honor to inform you that the Certificates of ?????? for Mr and Mrs Martin have been prepared, and can be obtained on application from this office."



To Hannah and Thomas Farr (in Ballarat) - a son - Arthur (5th child 4 surviving).
To Hannah Anderson (in Ballarat) - a son - Joseph Downey.

Inspector's Report - 1862 - Dana St. 10th Sept.

Enrolled - Present 81 Highest Number (in attendance?) 117
Age - 4- 14; 5- 10; 6- 11; 15 – 1; 18 - 1.


Premises - A state of repair.Stone in fair repair; see last report -regarding
Number of Stories and Rooms - 7 rooms in all; 2 schoolrooms. Number and Size of Rooms -Size 45 x 24; 11 x 13.
Light and Ventilation - both good.
Privies - Two separate.
Play Ground - Two acres.

Is There a Time table
- In dark room.

Discipline of School - Fair.
What Punishments are used - Corporal ????? and keeping in.
What Holidays During Year - Christmas 14 days; Easter 7 days.
General Tone of School - Satisfactory

Average Time Pupils Attend School - 5 months.


Charles Martin, Class 2 Division 1.
Elizabeth Martin Class 2 Division 2.
Anne Wynne
Manner - Good
Peculiarities in Pronunciation - Aspiration Defective.
Skill in Teaching - Very fair.

Skill in Class Management - Good.
Skill in School Management - Too many subdivisions; lower classes do not get sufficient of teachers attention.
Hand Writing - Fair.


From the Board - Salary £175; Assistant £120 Monitress £20
Yearly Amount of Fees Paid to the School Board -

Teacher's Yearly Income by Fees - £167
Does He Pay Rent for the House?- No
Rates of Payment by Children - CI 1 and 2 1/-; CI 3 1/6; CI 4 and 5 2/-
How Are The Incidental Expenses for the School, Such as Wood and Water for the Children, Defrayed? By the Teacher.


1. The girls in Grade 3 should write from Dictation more frequently.
2. The school could be better worked with fewer classes.

List of teachers, 29th August, 1862.
Charles Martin - Division 1 Class 2.
Mary Hitchcock - Division 2 Class 2. (Possibly Mary returned after her baby was born. But more likely she, was still on the roll somehow.)
Elizabeth Martin - Division 2 Class 2. Assistant Ballarat.


    During the year, the church group bean to organise more fully and to make definite moves to obtain a church building.
    Early in the year, Charles, in conjunction with Brothers Neale and Divers, purchased a block of land in Peel Street for £35, which they offered to the group as a site for their proposed new building.
    Also early in the year the church was visited by a "Bro Milneras part of a tour of the churches in the colony. He reported in the "British Millenial Harbinger" (magazine of the British Churches of Christ) -
"There are several small churches up the country, one at Ballarat, one at Maryborough, one at Beechworth. We had the opportunity of visiting Ballarat only, if we can be said to have done so by spending one Friday evening, and delivering a lecture. With a population around them of forty thousand, reinforced by the location of so esteemed and experienced a disciple as Bro. Picton, and seconded by Bro Divers zeal in tract distribution, my expectation is to hear good tidings of the truth in Ballarat. "
On January 25th, the church was also visited by D.Willder, an enthusiastic and dedicated pastor-cum-evangelist from the nearby Maryborough church. He reported in the "Millennial Harbinger" -
    I next visited by rail, lately opened, the flourishing township of Ballarat, about 50 miles from Geelong; I was welcomed by Pastor Picton, who was formerly over the Prahran Church. The church in this town has only lately taken a public position. The progress is encouraging The morning meeting was very comforting, rendered more so by the presence of Bro. Knights, formerly of Hammersmith, who was spending the Lord's day at Ballarat. We held an open air meeting in the main road in the afternoon, when three addresses were delivered by the brethren, after which we conversed with an anxious enquirer. In the evening I spoke in the Temperance-hall on the Bible as the only rule of faith and practice. Immediately after the service we held another large and successful open air meeting. The people were eager to hear of Apostolic Christianity, and the greatest order prevailed. A large number of tracts were distributed, and many were unwilling to go. I was glad to hear that the brethren have purchased a piece of land whereon to erect a meeting house. I have no doubt, from the zeal and warm-heartedness manifested by the church in this, the second township in the colony, that their position will be one of influence and power.

January 25th - Quite a Number of Baptisms.

Throughout the year quite a number of baptisms were recorded.
Bro and Sr Neale also Sr Porter having made a profession of (heir faith in the Lord Jesus were immersed into the names of the Father Son and Holy Spirit in the Baptist Chapel Dawson St which was kindly lent for the occasion.

March 25th - The Saga of Sis Porter.

    On the 25th March it was reported at a church meeting that Sis Porter had left her husband and child, and it was "moved Bro Diners, seconded Bro Martin, that Bro Picton write a letter calling upon her to repent and return"
    Two months later it was reported to the May meeting that she would not hear the letter read, but had nevertheless returned to her husband. It was moved that Bro Picton visit her and "ascertain whether she had received the letter, and if so her reason for not replying to it".
    At the June meeting, Bro Picton reported that he had been unable to get any reply from Sis Elizabeth Porter and was requested to visit her again.
    On 2nd September, Bro Martin reported that Sisters Divers and Martin had waited on Mrs Elizabeth Porter in order, if possible, to induce her to consider her ways, but were sorry to find that she showed no sign of repentance. The brothers then "saw no other course for them than to erase her name from the church book". (Thus ended the six month saga of Sis Porter. Apparently she wasn't too keen to repent and front up to the church and all the people.)

May 20th - Big Bro is watching you - it doesn't pay to stay away.

BR NICOL - Bro Divers reported that Bro Nicol had been absent for six weeks, and from enquiries made, had ascertained that he had gone to Back Creek. Bro Bardwell was requested to write to him and inquire the reason of his sudden absence.

May 22nd -A report in the "Millennial Harbinger"

    Our little church is slowly progressing. We are to use the Baptist chapel tonight to immerse one into the everlasting name. We are much in want of an evangelist. A large field is waiting for the good seed. Do you think you could obtain one from home? We do not appear to have a suitable brother here. I think an effort would be made to support him could a man of talent be secured.
    I remain yours in the Gospel, G.R. Divers.

17th June - At a church meeting held 17th June the advisability of securing a block of land in Barkley street was discussed, but a week later it was decided that the purchase not be proceeded with. Apparently the block of land in Peel St wasn't considered quite suitable, even though the church had agreed to purchase it from Bro Martin and company.


    Although the church group was very strict and legalistic in its enforcement of "moral standards" it also was anxious to meet the needs of the poorer members of the group. Bro. and Sis. Rankin were a case in point. The minutes of the May meeting record that "Bro Rankin continuing unwell, it was resolved that after deducting the current weekly expenses, he should receive the balance, provided that it do not exceed the average rate of 7/6. "
    In August, Bro Divers reported that he had purchased a mangle at a sale for £2/16/0. It was moved "That the mangle be purchased and repaired on behalf of the church and lent to Sr Rankin".
    In September, Bro. Martin stated that on the previous evening he had called on Bro. and Sr. Rankin and found that they were dissatisfied with the mangle, when Br. Picton mentioned that he believed that they were anxious to remove to a house "situate on the Yarrawee Creek". On the motion of Bros Neale and Reid, it was resolved that Brethren Divers and Martin ascertain from Br Rankin whether he thought he could obtain a livelihood if the church purchased the house for him. If they found him to be of the opinion that he could, they were authorised to purchase the house for a sum not exceeding ten pounds £10. Later in the month Br Divers had an interview with Br Rankin and as a result of the interview Br Reid moved and Br Bardwell seconded "That the church advance ten pounds (£10) as a loan to Br Rankin, and that the house and land on the Yarrowee Creek be held as security. "

EVANGELIST. Another matter which exercised the minds of the brethren during the year was that of a paid evangelist to come to Victoria from England or America. The name of Bro. Earl from England was suggested, and it was resolved that 5/- weekly be put aside to assist in the state-wide evangelistic fund.

23rd September. Mary Davey Joins The Church - Although it is not mentioned anywhere in the minutes, on this day William and Mary Davey (sister of Charles' wife Elizabeth) became members of the church. Their names are recorded in a roll at the back of the book which gives the date of joining. William was soon to attend officers' meetings, and in later years was to be chairman for some time. He was to remain faithful to Charles through all the turmoil that was to follow.

18th October - Charles Elected as an Elder.

    Towards the end of the year the need for an additional elder became apparent and Bro. Martin moved that Wednesday evening 14th October be devoted to special prayer on the subject. The election was held on Sunday 18th, with Bro. Martin receiving 11 votes, followed by Brethren Knight (3), Divers and Bardwell (1 each)..
    This may not seem to be of any great significance to us, but I think that it was probably quite an important event to him (and his fellow church officers) at the time.


    At a Church meeting held 27th October 1863 at the residence of Br Martin the minutes record that -   
    Brethren Martin and Neish reported that having witnessed a very unseemly display of anger on the part of Sr. Divers, at the meeting of the church on the Wednesday previous, they had endeavoured to expostulate with her on the impropriety of such conduct, but they were sorry to say that she expressed no contrition for her conduct. Br Martin moved, Br Cathcart seconded "That a deputation consisting of Brethren Reid, Bardwell and Neale wait on Sr Divers for the purpose of reasoning with her
    This meeting was not held at the home of Bro. Divers, as had been the case previously, but at the home of Bro. Martin, and Bro Divers was not in attendance. It's a reasonable assumption that the change was effected because of the trouble concerning Sr Divers. The following meeting was also at the home of Bro. Martin, although on this occasion Bro. Divers was present. The minutes tell the story -The deputation appointed at the last meeting reported the result of their interview. Bro Bardwell moved, Br Nicoll seconded "That the apology be considered satisfactory". Carried. (So Sis Divers must have apologised O.K.)
    At this meeting the name of William Davey appears as one of those present. He had joined the church only about six weeks previously with his wife, Mary, the sister of Elizabeth. They had joined from the Baptists. Whether or not this was the same group of which Charles and Elizabeth had been members is not stated, and they may well have come from another Baptist group.
    Also worthy of note is the fact that the meeting was held at the residence of Bro. Martin. There were 14 in attendance, so it was a fairly large group. If Charles was living in the residence attached to the Dana Street School (which I believe he was) there would have been problems fitting everyone in, as it still stands today and the rooms appear to be quite small. But they must have managed somehow.


    The Minutes State - Bro Picton reported that a deputation from the congregation assembling in the Mount Clear Union Chapel had waited upon him, expressing their desire to transfer the building to us, if we would undertake to conduct religious serv­ices therein every Lord's Day. Br Long moved, Br Reid seconded, "That we take the Mount Clear chapel for twelve months."
    It is also interesting to read the reference to the deputation from Mount Clear Union Church asking Bro Picton to take the services there. This created quite a stir and a fierce public debate erupted in the pages of the Ballarat Newspapers (The "Ballarat Star" and The "Ballarat Evening Standard"} about the dispute centering around the Mt Clear Church Hall. (Mt Clear is about three miles out of Ballarat). As the other denominations weren't able to consistently fill the pulpit, it was offered through Bro. Picton to the Church of Christ, and willingly accepted, but some strongly objected to this, as a letter to the newspaper makes plain -
    " a small knot of demonstrative religionists, recently sprung into existence, denominated "disciples", and led on by a law clerk and a Geelong shoemaker, having secured the building, actually refuse and have refused its use, to the very people whose money erected it A public meeting was held in the building some time ago The meek and lowly "disciples" would not listen to any compromise, and they would have the building, the whole building and nothing but the building Now, sir, why should half a dozen noisy persons, most of them from Ballarat, exclude from the building alluded to the very persons whose money erected it."
    The debate then took off at a tangent, and became focused on the subject of baptism, which would have suited the "disciples" quite well and served to give further publicity to their cause.
8th November - Lord's Day, 8th November 1863. Peter Joseph Cassider and Christian Renton having declared their faith in Jesus were baptized by Bro Picton in the chapel at Mt Clear.
    I believe that this "Cassider" is the chap called Cassidy, who receives a special mention in an article written by Picton in 1897 entitled "Looking Backwards". He writes of this person -
    "One Sunday night while passing the Temperance hall his attention was arrested by the voice of the preacher, and prompted by curiosity he came up the steps to the door and there listened to the discourse his Romish bias, however, preventing him from coming inside. The next Sunday night he came, and ventured into the porch and listened. The following two or three Sundays I saw him inside the hall on the back seat close to the door. Then' he came a seat or two nearer. The brethren having noticed his regular attendance and the interest he evinced in the services, spoke to him, expressing the pleasure they felt at his presence. He then informed them that he was a Roman Catholic, but that the discourses he had listened to, and his search of the Scriptures, (even the Douay Version), had led him to see things in an entirely different light to what he had been taught. After a few conversations with brethren Martin and Picton, the Romish scale fell from his eves. He received the truth in the love of it, and joyfully was buried with Christ in baptism, and became a most devoted, zealous and consistent disciple."
6th December - Lord's day, 6th December 1863. Ann Wynne having also professed her faith in the Saviour was baptized by Br Picton in the chapel at Mount Clear.
    Ann Wynne was a teacher from the school, previously listed as "Baptist", so no doubt it was a source of great satisfaction to Charles and Elizabeth that she had decided to be baptised and join the church.
    By about the end of 1863, the situation in the church is described by Picton in his article, "Looking Backwards", written in 1897.
    "After a few months' labour the brethren's hearts were rejoiced by several additions, some by letter of commendation, some from the denominations and some by immersion. Brethren W. M. Long and G. O. Reid, Bro and Sister W Davey, Bro and Sister Theodore Wright, Bro. and Sister Barrett, Bro. and Sister Smith from the Baptists (the last three named were deacons with the Baptists); Bro and Sister Neil from the Free Methodists; Bro J. B. Cathcart by letter from Dunedin, and Bro. and Sister Knights by letters from England. By immersion - Bro. and Sister Porter, Bro. and Sister Hooker, Sisters Annie Wran (Mrs MacGowan) Bessie Win (Mrs C. Morris), and Bro Peter Cassidy - the latter a convert from Romanism."
    By this time, as is obvious from the minutes, informal pastoral care had commenced at the church. Discipline was strict. The lives of members were carefully scrutinised, and if in error (doctrinal or moral) they were reprimanded. They were also required to "repent", which meant in public before the assembled members and thus it was something of an ordeal. If they refused to repent, they were struck off the roll. Attendance at meetings was carefully monitored. An absence of two consecutive Sundays meant a visit from someone in authority.
    Nevertheless, in this year, the small group of believers again made some quite significant gains, no doubt because of their commitment and sense of mission and purpose. It has ever been true that when a group is convinced that its beliefs and practices are right, its members will earnestly propagate those beliefs with conviction, and others will be convinced and will join them. Many were added to the church by "faith and repentance and confession and baptism" ("in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit"). I did not record every reference to this, nor shall I in the pages that follow. But there was certainly much activity and commitment by the members of the group at this time, and the church was experiencing significant growth in numbers.

On The School Front.

    Very little detail is available for this year. School was held for 240 days. At the end of the year there were 150 on the roll, with an average attendance of about 80. It's also perhaps worthy of note, that for boys the average attendance was 60, but for girls only 20. Why there should be such a big difference I don't know but this situation continued for most of the next decade, even if it wasn't quite so pronounced. In most schools of the time, boys outnumbered girls, but not to this degree.
    So far as Charles and Elizabeth are concerned, the District Inspector's report notes that they are "quiet and unostentatious - not inefficient", and that discipline is "Good".

Railway Line to Melbourne Completed.

Another event of importance in 1863 was the completion of the railway from Melbourne to Ballarat. It's probably difficult for us to realise the great significance of this, but it must have made a huge difference in conditions of travel. The train went via Geelong, and although this added some extra miles to the trip, (it took about four and a half hours) it was no doubt much speedier and more comfortable than jolting around in a Cobb and Co. coach for a full day.

To Mary and William Davey in Ballarat - a daughter - Mary.
To Louisa (Crump) in Castlemaine - a son - Charles Marcus. (6th child - 5 surviving).

D.I.s Report - 1863. 13th, 14th July.

Number on the roll - 103. Number under 7 - 28. Number over 7 examined 50
(NOTE - In the list of children examined, the name Henry Martin, aged 8, appears. His parent's occupation is listed as "schoolmaster". This is obviously Charles' eldest son. His school marks appear to be quite good.)
State of School - Good.
Ventilation - By side windows and end ventilators - open ceiling - good.
Drainage - Not good - ground lies below footpath.

Light - Good.
Out-offices - Good.
Playground and Fence - Playground spacious, fence good.
Is there sufficient school apparatus and furniture - Yes, but desks are bad being double.
Desks - Sufficient.
Forms - Sufficient.
Maps - Sufficient.
Blackboards - Two.
Books - Sufficient.


Number of Classes - 5.
Number of Teachers and Pupil Teachers - 2. Master and assistant.
Are Monitors Employed? - Yes.
Are the Classes Kept Properly Employed? - Yes.
Is There a Time Table and is it Adhered To? - Yes.
Is the School Room Properly Arranged? - The arrangement of desks may be improved.
The first class falls short in writing and arithmetic, and the same may be said of ???? and ??? are not up to standards.
Discipline - Good.
Is Military Drill Taught? - No.
Methods of Instruction - are they from Book, or Oral, or Both Combin­ed? Combined.


Quiet and unostentatious - not inefficient.
Is the Register Properly Kept? - Yes.
Is the Roll Properly Kept? - Yes.
How Many Free Children? - 11.
Are They Certified? - No
Are the Accounts Properly Kept - Yes.
Is the Rule Requiring 2 Hours of Consecutive Secular Instruction in Morning and Afternoon Observed? Yes.
Have You Heard Any Complaints Regarding This? No.
Does The Local Committee Manifest Interest in the School? How Often Do They Visit It? Seldom visit the school.
Are the Rules of the Local Committee Observed? There are no Rules.

(NOTE - Some of the various tests are then quoted)

Average time examining each child 7 9/10 minutes. Total - 6 hours 35 minutes.

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